Stirling Castle is one of the largest and most important castles, both historically and architecturally, in Scotland. During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Stirling Castle was held by Sir Philip de Mowbray of Redcastle, a Scottish gentleman ,who was the English governor of Stirling Castle. [Sir Philip was the son of the Anglo-Norman Geoffrey de Mowbray (Sir Galfrid) who was loyal to Edward I.] By 1313, only Stirling, Bothwell, and Berwick castles were held by the English. Edward Bruce, the king of Scotlandís brother, laid siege to Stirling, and Sir Philip proposed a bargain: that he would surrender the castle, if it were not relieved by 24 June 1314. Bruce agreed, and withdrew. The following summer, the English duly headed north, led by Edward II, to save the castle. On 23-24 June, King Robert's forces met the English at the Battle of Bannockburn, within sight of the castle walls. The resulting English defeat was decisive. King Edward attempted to take refuge in the castle, but Mowbray was determined to keep to his word, and the English were forced to flee. Mowbray handed over the castle to the Scots, himself changing sides in the process.